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MAPublisher Dot Density Maps

Dot density themes are sometimes called dot distribution maps because they show where particular data characteristics occur. It uses dots or other symbols to represent the number of occurrences of a given data characteristic in a particular location. Starting at MAPublisher 8.4, the ability to create dot density maps is available through the provision of Dot Density Themes.

When creating a new MAP Theme simply choose “Dot Density” from the available theme types. The creation of a dot density theme is facilitated through the MAP Themes panel. The dot density theme is an Adobe Illustrator effect applied to an area layer.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

As dot density maps are most useful for showing where particular data occur, they may only be generated for MAP Area type layers. Most often, symbols are used to represent data occurring within a bounding polygon such as a census tract, zip code or county polygons.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

Dot density effects are created on a per layer basis, based on various user defined settings. Data ranges can be determined from selected attribute columns and then a dot value can be assigned a corresponding symbol at which point MAPublisher will map the appropriate results. Users may apply default symbols or load custom ones based on Illustrator symbol sets

In this example, population tallies per county have been loaded, assigned a dot value of 10,000 with a designated symbol of a 2pt black dot.

This screenshot displays the map prior to applying the dot density effect.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

The screenshot below displays the map after having applied the Dot Density Theme using the parameters displayed within the dialog .

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

Using Make Index for Geoprocessing in MAPublisher 8.4.2

New to the MAPublisher 8.4.2 Make Index tool is an enhancement that allows you to index objects relative to a MAP Area layer’s features instead of an index grid. This new functionality compliments the existing geoprocessing tools found in the Buffer Art tool and the Spatial Filter in the MAP Selections panel.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

An index grid on a MAP Legend layer is no longer a prerequisite for using the Make Index tool. By choosing the “Use Area layer as grid” option in the Make Index dialog box, a spatial query will be performed and an index file will be produced based on the layer and attribute specified.

For this example, I have loaded a point file of cities and a point file of nuclear facilities against a background of North America. I then proceeded to use the Buffer art tool to create 80 kilometer buffers around each facility.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

Finally, I will produce an index that returns which communities fall within the 80 km radius surrounding each nuclear facility. For this index I will choose my Towns_labels MAP Text layer.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

With these settings our index gives a line for each city that falls within the buffer, and after a tab delimiter, gives the name of each facility as found in the kmlName attribute of the Buffered Art layer. Notice that for cities that fall within the buffer of multiple nuclear facilities, the values from the kmlName attribute field are concatenated together with a semicolon “;”.

Item 2: Coordinate system of the map

If you choose to make an index using an index grid, the option to add an attribute from a bounding MAP Area layer can be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Make Index dialog.

New in MAPublisher 8.4: Import Map Data from Web Services

MAPublisher 8.4 has an exciting new feature: importing data from web services. It is another enhancement to provide you with more options to access data.

simple import web service

You can import vector data using the Web Feature Service (WFS). It accesses web servers that deliver vector content in GML format. Similarly, you can import raster data with the Web Map Service (WMS). It accesses web servers that deliver raster content in a variety of formats.

Access the WFS and WMS directly from the Simple or Advanced Import dialog boxes. After selecting either Web Feature Service or Web Map Service from the Format drop-down list, browse for a web service and select one. Of course, you can easily add, remove and manage your favourite WFS/WMS in this dialog box.

WFS Services

After selecting and connecting to a WFS/WMS, simply select features (layers) or rasters you want to import into Adobe Illustrator. At the same time, you will have an option whether or not to save the original datasets in GML format.

WFS Services

Click the Info button available next to the Server Info at the top of the dialog box. You can see more detail information about the web server.

The server information

After importing features from the WFS/WMS, each of the features will be in a MAP layer and all the georeferencing of those selected features will be stored in the MAP View.

Imported features from Web Feature Service

New Text Utilities in MAPublisher 8.4

Among other great new features, MAPublisher 8.4 includes new text utilities designed to ease cartographic workflow by adding flexibility to text handling. These tools are accessed through two icons grouped with the MAPublisher document operations tools on the MAPublisher tool bar.

Text Utilities Icons

Text Utilities

Add functions like convert text on a path to point text, separate multiline text, extend overflowing text, flip upside down text, crop text path to text length, set text alignment, rectify point text to angle, and draw shape around text. These text utilities can be applied to selections, to layers, or to all document text at once. The following table provides examples for the result of each tool.

Text Utilities Icons

Right-to-Left Text Tool

Many right-to-left languages, such as Arabic and Hebrew, require additional language-specific processing to get the correct glyph output given the incoming character stream. Let’s look at an example.

Looking at the MAP Attribute panel, we see that the Arabic script is displayed properly

Text Utilities Icons

Yet, when using the Label Features tool, we see that the Arabic text is placed as a series of symbols that indicate that the text placement could not be accomplished accurately. This is one of two scenarios we will see, the other being that the Arabic characters will be placed left-to-right.

This happens because Label Features uses the currently selected font, in this case Myriad Pro. Since the Arabic characters were not found in the current Myriad Pro, the displayed symbol is substituted.

Text Utilities Icons

Once we apply the Right-to-Left text tool to these symbols, the Arabic characters will be reordered and altered to display the character appropriate to placement within the word and appropriate to surrounding characters. To apply the Right-to-Left text tool select Arabic from the preset drop-down menu. This populates the remaining settings with the correct parametrs.

Text Utilities Icons

Clicking OK, the script now matches what is found in the MAP Attribute Table.

Text Utilities Icons

If you are using MAP LabelPro, you will also need to use the Right-to-Left text tool after labeling. However, there is a slight difference between Feature Labels and MAP LabelPro behaviour. Instead of displaying the box with “x” symbol, it will place the Arabic characters in reverse order from their proper placement in the MAP Attributes table.

Text Utilities Icons

The text on the left is placed by MAP LabelPro, with the text on the right having been corrected with the Right-to-Left text tool.

We’re excited that these text utilities are being incorporated into MAPublisher. Many users have been requesting more text options. We hope you’ll like them as much as we do. We’re putting the finishing touches on MAPublisher 8.4 and will be releasing it in a few weeks.

Aligning data with different coordinate systems in MAPublisher

When first creating a map, very often you will find yourself having to align GIS data, especially if it is found or supplied by various sources. You might find that the coordinate systems assigned to each of the datasets might be different. This can prove challenging for many cartographers and GIS users. However, with MAPublisher, you can transform and align your datasets to one coordinate system very easily using the MAP Views panel.

Imported maps have different coordinate systems

For example, we have five layers with three different coordinate systems. After importing them into MAPublisher, the result is three different MAP Views. The MAP Area layer (Province) is in a Lambert conformal conic projection. The MAP Line Layer (river) and MAP Area layer (lake) are in a Robinson projection. Lastly, the MAP Point layer (cities) and MAP Line layer (roads) are in a geodetic coordinate system WGS84.

5 MAP Layers with 3 different MAPViews

Let’s decide that the map we are creating here will have a Lambert conformal conic projection (the MAP View with the province area layer). Now, simply select the two layers in the Robinson MAP View, then drag them to the “Lambert Conf. Conic – 1: 30,000,000” MAP View.

MAPublisher trick: Drag and Drop Transformation

The rivers and lakes layers are now transformed and aligned to the province boundary layer.

Two map layers are transformed and aligned properly.

We will do the same for the cities and roads layers in the “WGS84” MAP View. Select the two map layers (cities and roads layers) then drag them to the “Lambert Conf. Conic – 1: 30,000,000” MAP View.

MAPublisher trick: Drag and Drop transformation for two map layers

The cities and roads layers are projected on-the-fly. Now every layer is transformed to a Lambert conformal conic projection and aligned appropriately.

Every map layer is transformed and aligned properly

 

Related topics

University of Montana Student Map Submissions

MAPublisher is popular with educators and students because, in no time at all, new users can begin to create great looking maps. Working seamlessly with the Adobe Illustrator environment, users can spend more time on map details and less time fighting with complicated importers and data format conversions.

Avenza Systems Inc. recently received student work submitted by the Univeristy of Montana’s Digital Design course. These maps show some excellent terrain shading, good colour choices, and a knack for making complex cartographic detail legible.

We wish to thank the students for generously allowing us to distribute their work, and we wish them luck in their upcoming mapping endeavours.

Click the maps to load high-resolution versions.

Buffalo Bill State Park Wyoming

by: Nathan TaylorBuffalo Bill smaller

 

Crown of the Continent

by: Nathan BaldingCrown of the Continent smaller

 

Lolo Pass Recreational Trails

by: Hal Bobbitt Lolo Pass Recreational Trails

Georeferencing an Image in Adobe Photoshop with Geographic Imager

Today's topic: making an image georeferenced

As of Geographic Imager 5.0, there’s an updated workflow for georeferencing images. Learn more about Georeferencing and work through the tutorial.

 


Nowadays, it’s common to find great orthophotos and satellite imagery on the Web. However, after downloading these (sometimes) large files, you might find that some don’t have any georeferencing. Most likely these files are in an image format supported by Adobe Photoshop(e.g. JPG or TIF) and you can georeference it using the Geographic Imager Georeference tool.

These are the requirements to georeference an image:

  1. Knowing the coordinate system of the image (e.g. Mercator projection, State Plane system Alabama East, UTM system NAD 83 Zone 17 N..etc)
  2. Finding three or more points from the image to assign coordinate values to each of them. These points are known as ground control points.

The first thing you need to know is the coordinate system or projection of the image you are georereferncing. If you are unsure about which coordinate system the image uses, contact the data provider or search the metadata of the image on the Internet. If you cannot get the information of the coordinate system assigned to the image, you might want to try georeferencing with different coordinate systems to make the map as precise as possible.

The second requirement is working with the ground control points. One ground control point consists of several values: 1) Pixel X coordinate, 2) Pixel Y coordinate, 3) Ground X coordinate (e.g. longitude), and 4) Ground Y coordinate (e.g. latitude). Furthermore, to make georeferencing easier, ground control points must be clearly identifiable in the image. Cultural features such as road intersection, a sharp corner of a lot or boundary are good examples of locations used as ground control points.

Now that you know what you’ll need, we’ll demonstrate a georeference workflow using the Geographic Imager Georeference tool and Google Earth.

Step 1: Obtain a non-georeferenced image

This image is in JPEG format and there is no georeference information associated with it. In order to transform it to another coordinate system or projection, mosaic with other images, or align the image to vector work using MAPublisher for Adobe Illustrator, the image must first be georeferenced.

An example image collected

Step 2: Obtain the required information

As indicated above, two key pieces of information are required to georeference an image: a) the coordinate system of the image and b) defining ground control points

a) The coordinate system of the image

The image, collected from Google Earth, is projected in a coordinate system called WGS84 / Pseudo Mercator (this projection is common to Web based mapping systems and is also known as Web Mercator or Google projection).

b) Defining ground control points

We’ll need to define at least three ground control points for georeferencing. Below are the steps for finding out one of the ground control points.

On the non-georeferenced image, decide which spot to use as a point of reference. It should be available on Google Earth where you’ll find the X,Y coordinate values. For the first point, we’ll use the corner boundary between the pavement and a golf course.

a ground control point selected on my image

Using Google Earth, find the exact same spot as the one decided in the non-georeferenced image. Place a point symbol to help identify the coordinate values. Record the collected latitude and longitude values. The latitude and longitude values are at the centre of the point symbol symbol in the Google Earth window.

collecting the latitude and longitude values from Google Earth

Find the coordinates of two additional ground control points. The latitude and longitude values are in decimal degree format and the coordinate system of those values are in the geodetic system “WGS84”.

collected three ground control points

Step 3: Georeference in Geographic Imager

In Geographic Imager, click the Georeference tool button Geographic Imager: Georeference in the Geograhpic Imager main panel (or choose File > Automate > Geographic Imager : Georerence). The Georeference dialog box will open.

Geographic Imager: Georeference window

First, we’ll need to set the proper image coordinate system and input coordinate system (the information from Step 2a). In the Format section, click the blue “Specify” link to open the Input Format dialog box.

Georeference: Input

Here we’ll specify two parameters: Image Coordinate System and alternate input coordinate system. The image of the coordinate system is WGS84 / Pseudo-Mercator as found at Step 2a. Click the “Specify” button to find the coordinate system from the coordinate systems list.

The option “Use alternate input coordinate system” will not have to be selected if the X,Y coordinate values are collected in the Eastings/Northings in the WGS84 / Pseudo-Mercator coordinate system. When those latitude and longitude values are collected, those values are collected in the decimal degree format and the values are in degree in WGS84. We will use those latitude and longitude values for the georeferencing. Specify the destination coordinate system as WGS84.

When the settings are made, click OK to close the Input Format dialog box. All the selected coordinate system for each setting will be indicated in the Format section of the Georeference dialog box.

Georeference : Input image coordinate system and input coordinate system

The next step is to enter the three ground control points collected from Google Earth. Click the pencil tool at the top of the Georeference dialog box and click a point for one of the ground control points collected at the previous steps Georeference : Pencil tool.

a ground control point selected on my image

As soon as one point is clicked on the preview image, it will add one row in the Georeference table. This row contains the point name, PX (Pixel x coordinate), PY (Pixel y coordinate), WX (World X coordinate), and WY (World Y coordinate).

Ground control point 1

For WX and WY, enter the longitude and latitude, respectively, for the first ground control point.

ground control 1: completed

Repeat the same steps for the second and third ground control points.

All three ground control points are entered

As soon as you enter three points, Geographic Imager will display the residual error values on the table for the accuracy assessment.

GCP Error

A residual error is the computed difference between an observed source coordinate and a calculated source coordinate. It is the measure of the fit between the true locations and the transformed locations of the output control points. A high residual error indicates possible error in either the observed source coordinates or the reference coordinates of the reference point in question.

When the error is particularly large, you may want to remove and add control points to adjust the error. As a general rule, apply several different transformation methods, select/deselect questionable points and select the method and reference points that yield the minimum residual error, assuming that the defined reference points are correct. Residual values are calculated via the associated error values between computed values and entered values through either the affine or various polynomial methods.

Once completed, the Geographic Imager main panel will indicate the georeference information of the image. Don’t forget to save the file once it is complete. Now your image is ready for any Geographic Imager function. You can also bring this image into MAPublisher for Adobe illustrator and align it to other GIS data.

Georeference information displayed on the Geographic Imager Main panel

New in MAPublisher 8.4: Image MAP Layer feature type for georeferenced images

MAPublisher 8.4 introduces two new related features: to import supported image formats directly from the MAPublisher Simple and Advanced Import dialog boxes and the Image MAP Layer feature type. To import a georeferenced image into the current MAPublisher 8.3 (and earlier) requires you 1) to create a new MAP Layer for an image to be placed, 2) use File > Place to place an image into the Adobe Illustrator document, and 3) to use MAPublisher Register Image to align with the vector work. With MAPublisher 8.4, these steps are streamlined and it will be much simpler to deal with georeferenced image files.

Below is the Simple Import dialog box. The new Format option, Image, is added to the drop-down list. Supported images include: PNG, JPG, TIF, GIF, JP2, PSD, PDD, and BMP.

MAPublisher 8.4: Import dialog window

The VancouverDowntown.tif file was selected from the MAPublisher Quick Start dataset. The source coordinate system of the image, “NAD 83 / UTM Zone 10N”, is automatically detected because it is a GeoTIFF and contains the georeference information of the image.

MAPublisher Simple Import: Coordinate System identified for the selected data

When the georeferenced image is imported by MAPublisher, it is stored in a new layer called “VancouverDowntown_image”. MAPublisher 8.4 introduces a new MAP Layer feature type called “Image”, a purple icon with the letter ” I “. From now on, all images should be placed on Image MAP Layers.

MAPView: New data type "IMAGE"

Remember that images placed in Adobe Illustrator using MAPublisher cannot be transformed or reprojected into another coordinate system. To transform an image from one coordinate system to another, it must be done using another software such as Geographic Imager.

MAPublisher 8.4 will be released very soon. Thanks for sending us feature requests like this one. If you have any feature requests for MAPublisher, Geographic Imager or PDF Maps, please feel free to drop us a line at support@avenza.com. We’re always happy to hear from you!

How to Download USGS Maps for your iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch

If you haven’t read about it yet, USGS topographic maps for the United States are now available for download on the Avenza PDF Maps Library.

USGS topographic maps are great for viewing, reference and recreational uses such as hiking, fishing or exploring. You can download the maps beforehand (in cellular range or over Wi-Fi) and use the GPS capability (of the iPhone and iPad Wi-Fi+3G) to locate yourself on the map. These 1:24,000 scale maps include the lower 48 states, Alaska, Hawaii and the District of Columbia. All of the maps are in geospatial PDF format. Best of all, majority of the maps are lightweight meaning they download and process quickly on your device.

The process of getting USGS maps on your iOS device is simple

First, download and install the app if you don’t have it yet. Open the PDF Maps app. In the map list screen, tap the + button (Add Map) in the top-right corner.

open the PDF Maps app

Then tap the From Avenza PDF Maps Library button.

open the PDF Maps Library

The app connects to our PDF Maps Library server and lists several categories. Tap the USGS Topographic Maps category.

Tap USGS

The maps are categorized by state and area. We’ll retrieve a topographic map of a part of the city of Tucson, AZ. In the list of the U.S. states, tap Arizona.

Tap Arizona

In the preview map of Arizona, area grids are represented by the dashed gray lines. These area grids contain all of the available topographic maps categorized further by area name. Tap the area grid that contains Tucson.

Tap Tucson

Scroll down the list and tap Tucson East. This will take you to a preview of the map before the last step of downloading it.

Tap Tucson East

A preview of the map is shown. Finally, tap the Download 3.3MB button to download the Tucson East map. The PDF file size is listed as 3.3 MB.

download the map

The device automatically returns to the PDF Maps app where the Tucson East map will be downloading. After the download is complete, the app will automatically process and render all the tiles you’ll need to explore the map. This will only take a few minutes.

PDF Map downloading PDF Map processing

When the processing is completed, it will show it’s total size (18.1 MB) that includes tiles for all of the different zoom levels. Tap the Tucson East map to load it.

Done processing Explore map

These USGS maps and other maps on the Avenza PDF Maps Library are fully georeferenced and compatible with PDF Maps. Still have questions about PDF Maps? Read our support page or send us your questions. Stay tuned for more content.

New Join Areas feature in MAPublisher 8.4

The upcoming release of MAPublisher 8.4 introduces many new features. One of the new features is called Join Areas. We have received a lot of requests from our customers to create area objects by merging common attribute values. This geoprocessing function is generally known as “dissolve”.

The picture below shows polygon objects from a USA Counties layer. The goal is to create a layer with state boundaries and summing the population count by joining the objects of the counties layer.

USA County MAP

In the MAP Attributes panel of the USA Counties layer, every object of the counties layer contains attribute information including county name, state name, FIPS codes, area in km2, population and so on. We’ll be using the StateName attribute value to combine all the county polygons into one polygon per state.

MAP Attribute of the USA County layer

This is the new Join Area dialog box. On the left side, we’ll specify 1) target layer, 2) destination (output) layer, 3) join type and 4) join method. We are trying to create state boundaries from the counties target layer so we’ll select a join type based on the StateName attribute and output it to a new layer called USA States. The join will create compound paths and since our goal is to create state polygons, we’ll dissolve borders between adjacent sub-areas.

On the right side of the dialog box are attribute value operations available for each column. These operations determine what kind of the values will result for every attribute and the operations available are different for each data type (String, Real, Integer). The screenshot below shows the attribute value operation set to Sum for Population attribute (Integer data type). When the Join Area is complete, each state polygon will have the sum of the population of all the counties that belong to it.

After running the Join Areas function, county polygons are dissolved into state boundaries.

The population values show the total sum from all the counties for every state.

This is just one example of how Join Areas can be used. It was initially a feature request and with some discussion and planning, it became real. If you have any feature requests for MAPublisher, Geographic Imager or PDF Maps, please feel free to drop us a line at support@avenza.com. We’re happy to hear from all of you!